Make Your Dog Feel Comfortable and Good About Themselves

Dogs aren’t just best friends they become family, and they really are the most loyal pets to have.  Whether they’re annoyingly drooling over your food, barking in the middle of the night, or greeting you with a big smile when you walk through the door they always seem to be there for their owners. Our pet pooches do lots of little different things that manage to put smiles on our faces even when the stresses of life get us down. We share a very unique bond with our dogs, which is why it is important to make them feel comfortable and good about themselves in all aspects of their lives from walks in the park to when they go to bed at night.
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Spaying and Neutering your pets

Spaying and Neutering your pets

L to female sterilization and castration of males is a method for removing jealousy of females and reproduction of animals, to somehow avoid overcrowding of animals that roam the streets of our cities and also solve some health problems of our pets.

Female sterilization involves removing part of your reproductive system through a surgical procedure under general anesthesia, complications are rare and complete recovery is around 10 days.

This surgery can be performed from 6 months old, sterilization at this age reduces the risk of getting breast cancer in adulthood. Also early sterilized cats become more docile and friendly.

If you do not want to sterilize your pet, you should know that there are other alternatives to avoid the heat in females as contraceptives but these are not recommended for dogs or cats in her first heat, they should also be applied at a certain time of the cycle females (anoestrus) not to cause diseases such as uterine infection or pyometra.

Castration of males is also done through a surgery under general anesthesia to remove part of your reproductive system is less complicated than female sterilization and full recovery is at 7 days, it is also recommended to castrate starting from 6 months old. A neutered dog decreases the incidence of prostate diseases.

Spaying and Neutering your pets

Besides cats neutered at an early age, they become more friendly and calm, reduces urine marking behavior in its territory, avoid departures or disappearances away leading to fights with other cats and the spread of disease.

Canine Reproduction

A female dog can reach sexual maturity between 6 and 14 months, depending on the breed, being earlier in small and later in larger breeds. Overall the dog may have a period of heat every 4-6 months.

The mating season begins with the proestrus phase that lasts between 6- 11 days with an average 9 days, the female begins here with vaginal bleeding and is attractive to males but not accept rides, comes immediately after the fertile period or where estrus female ovulates and accepts the male to be fertilized, this stage also lasts between 6-11 days with an average of 9 days.

Therefore, we can estimate the fertile period of the bitch occurs on the ninth or eleventh day from the start of vaginal bleeding and it is at this point that accept being mounted by the male for fertilization.

It is recommended to cross a female canine in their second or third heat, when it decides to cross a female, it is recommended that prior to breeding, she is wormed, vaccinated, with a good physical condition (neither fat nor thin), also it is crossed with a male equal to or smaller than it, to avoid complications in childbirth.

Mating or hard ride about 20 minutes. The number of puppies depends on the fertility of both dogs and the number of mounts. Gestation lasts bitch in about 60 + 3 days, if there is an obvious pregnancy is recommended to change to adult food puppy dog.

Canine reproduction

When comes the time of delivery you may notice the dog restless, cease to eat or take attitudes like making a nest in the yard or in your closet.

A physiological event is the body temperature drops more than normal, indicating that delivery has come imminently, sometimes you can see that the dog boot your mucus plug along with contractions, then every puppy is born in an individual bag color green, which is the placenta, the new mother cut the umbilical cord will bring the puppy of the placenta, cleanse, and can eat the placentas.

Help the mother when she is not able or do not know the puppy out of the placenta, itself feels trained carefully you can break the bag, remove the puppy, cut the umbilical cord and clean to breathe.

Overall a dog can give birth alone but we are in the presence of a difficult birth when the mother has made efforts to give birth more than two hours and have not gotten a puppy is born, or even when a puppy is born and spend more than 60 minutes no was born the rest of the litter, in these situations should call the veterinarian immediately, as the life of the dog and the puppies are in danger.

If labor was no problem is also recommended consideration by the veterinarian to evaluate the new mother, see if there are still puppies or remains of placentas inside and to examine the new puppies.

Once born the puppies they seek heat and its mother’s milk, the lactation period should not last less than 45 days, around this age begin weaning when the pups are able to eat solid food for puppies that is given to the mother.

Play Feline

The cat reaches sexual maturity between 5-10 months of age. She may have several jealousy at certain times of the year, with increased activity in August. We recommend a cat crossing from 14 months of age, or in his second heat, she should be in good physical condition (should not be fat or extremely thin) on shots and worming a day, to give a good immunity to the kittens and not transmit parasites.

In matching the cat needs the stimulation of the male during copulation to ovulate and be fertilized, a cat in heat can be mounted by several males at different times, the cat will accept mating throughout the period of zeal even if this brewing or amantando their kittens. Gestation in the cat takes about 60 days, if no apparent gestation is recommended to change the adult food to kittens cat and not let to mate again.

Cat with kittens

Overall a cat stop her cubs alone, when the time of delivery comes you may notice your cat restless, anxious or vocalizes more than usual, can also find a safe place to have their kittens.

A physiological event is the body temperature drops more than normal, indicating that delivery has come imminently, sometimes you can see that with the contractions boot the mucus plug. Each kitten born in a deed and individual bag is the placenta, the new mother will take it out and clean, cutting the umbilical cord and the placenta usually eats.

A difficult birth occurs when the mother has made efforts to give birth to more than two hours and have not gotten born any kitten, or where between the birth of a kitten and a pass longer than 60 minutes, in these situations should call the veterinarian immediately, as the life of the cat and kittens They are in danger.

If labor was no problem it is also recommended that the veterinarian to examine and verify the new generation that there are no kittens within the cat. Once born kittens seek warmth and milk from his mother, the period of breastfeeding should not last less than six weeks, around this age begin weaning, when the kittens are able to eat solid food for kittens given to the mother.

What age can I vaccines for cats?

What age can I vaccines for cats

From what age can I vaccinate my cat ‘s mother an animal crosses in pregnancy and lactation degree of immunity to their children, but this is lost over time, between 5-7 weeks of life, begins to decline maternally derived immunity in kittens. Therefore around 9 weeks old, the kittens already be vaccinated with the triple vaccine against feline and feline leukemia.

The rabies vaccine can begin applying between 5-6 months of age. The vaccination plan in cats may vary at the discretion of the attending veterinarian and the types of vaccines used.

What vaccines for cats exist in Chile?

In Chile feline vaccines help protect against some viral diseases fatal to cats. The triple vaccine against rabies and feline vaccines are routine; and the vaccine against feline leukemia and feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) are optional.

What age can I vaccines for cats

1. Feline triple vaccine protects against three highly contagious disease among cats are feline rhinotracheitis, feline panleukopenia and feline calcivirus.

2. Vaccine against feline leukemia is highly recommended.

3. Vaccine against feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) of intranasal application.

4- The vaccine that protects against rabies is legally binding, the owner of a cat must keep up the rabies vaccination.

What diseases can be prevented with vaccination in cats?

Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis : is a disease caused by a virus that affects, easily transmitted from cat to cat upper respiratory system. Overall affected cats have fever, loss of appetite, sneezing, runny eyes, nose and cough. Unprotected or weak kittens can be the most affected by this disease.

Feline Calicivirus: this highly contagious among cats virus produces a disease that affects the respiratory system, accompanied by fever, mouth sores, loss of appetite, sneezing, eye discharge and pneumonia.

FPV: viral disease of cats that causes diarrhea, severe vomiting, dehydration and fever. Easily controlled with proper vaccination.

Feline Leukemia : Infection with the feline leukemia virus can trigger many diseases and serious health problems in your cat, as this disease affects the system inmune.Despues initial exposure to the virus, the cat may not show signs of disease months or years and infect other cats meantime.

There is the option to do a blood test to determine the status of the feline leukemia virus in your cat. If your cat is not infected with the virus, vaccination against this fatal disease is highly recommended.

Rabies: is a fatal and incurable viral disease affecting the central nervous system (CNS) of all mammals including humans. It contiaga through saliva or any infected animal bite.

The signs are variable, you can make changes in their unpredictable behavior, nervousness, anxiety, aggression, excessive salivation or inability to swallow water.

Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP): este virus especially affects young people and adults cats, is a global disease that causes high mortality, especially where live many cats.

The disease initially manifests with chronic fever and anorexia, then it can be expressed in two ways wet form where clinical signs are mainly accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity, coughing and difficulty breathing.

The dry form is characterized by the formation of nodules on internal organs causing variable symptoms such as anemia, nervous signs, eye damage and then death. Vaccination is recommended for over 16 weeks of age who have not been exposed to the virus and will coexist with other serologically positive cats kittens.

The importance of vaccination in animal health

The importance of vaccination in animal health

Vaccination has been one of the best tools for the control of viral diseases in humans. Developed countries through the rigorous application of vaccination programs have succeeded in minimizing the incidence or even eradicate highly prevalent diseases in the population just a few years ago, such as measles, rubella, mumps …

Strategies to control viral processes in animals are similar to those used in humans, although there is tremendously important differential fact marks the success or otherwise of these strategies: while in humans the state handles both free information campaigns as the costs of vaccination, livestock and even pets, state intervention is much lower, limited to those diseases that primarily for reasons of public health, require eradication plans and in which case government intervention it could finance the vaccine cost and always carries a strict monitoring of the effectiveness of the program.

Vaccination against most animal diseases is therefore voluntary, being the owner, advised by the veterinary services, who makes the decision to vaccinate or not and takes the appropriate vaccine cost.

The fact that vaccination is free no risk to human health, since we do not speak of diseases transmissible to humans, although they may have a great interest in animal health.

Disease control through the application of vaccination programs in animals is well established, sometimes for purely humanitarian reasons such as animals (dogs, cats, horses, rabbits …) and others, for both humanitarian reasons and production , such as livestock (cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, poultry …). The main features of the objective of vaccination in these species described below.

The importance of vaccination in animal health

Vaccination in pets

The pet concept has evolved greatly over the last three decades in our country. In many occasions, the idea on pet has in other European countries and North America, the pet has become part, as one of the family. While many alien species have been taken in recent years as pets, the main health efforts continue to focus primarily on the most common species as a pet: dog and cat.

The vaccine protocols that are established in dogs and cats must be understood from three perspectives: the protection of owners and other humans who live with these animals, controlling levels of illness within the population of that species, and safeguarding health and quality of life of that individual.

The most crucial of the vaccination program for a dog or cat when is the postnatal period, in which both puppies and kittens are exposed more directly to the action of pathogenic microorganisms and their body is still very fragile to develop a spontaneous immunity front of them. That’s why protocols are much more intense during this first stage of life.

There are two distinct categories of diseases against which they are vaccinated dogs and cats:

Disease “core” or essential : those against which there is a recommendation to vaccinate strictly all animals (and in some cases, such as rabies, vaccination is mandatory in many regions in Spain). This is either (potentially transmissible to humans) or zoonotic disease highly contagious and with high mortality in both dogs and cats diseases.

Disease “non core” or nonessential: those against which the recommendation is to vaccinate if the animal is part of a group of specific risk. These diseases can not be highly lethal, but upsets in pets, and are highly contagious for example when the animals are kept, albeit temporarily, in communities (farms, shelters, kennels, dog shows, etc. ). If these conditions are met, it is appropriate immunoprophylaxis.

To ensure adequate protection of pets against these diseases throughout their lives, to be repeated regularly vaccinations, with an interval and a pattern that will depend on the prospect of the vaccine used and the recommendations of the veterinary surgeon who is in charge animal.

From the legal point of view, for some diseases may be required proper completion of the immunization by a veterinary surgeon throughout the lifetime of the animal.

Finally we must remember that disease and legislation on tenure of pets can be highly variable depending on the country concerned.

This must be taken into account when traveling with our dogs and cats abroad. Should consult the embassy and informed of the requirements well in advance of both vaccination and deworming (or other health) that require pets in the country of entry.

The animals must travel with documentation consistent with these requirements, most of the time, must be reviewed and certified by a veterinary surgeon. These preparatory steps can take several days or even months of preparation before the trip to proceed.

If not properly conducted, can the animal refused entry in the country of destination or for performing a relevant period of quarantine and observation of the dog or cat.

Vaccination of animals income (livestock)

The health of animals is the main key to getting healthy and quality food, main goal of the veterinary profession. That is why the disease control and the use of all the tools available for it is the daily work of the veterinarian on farms, thereby also contributing to profitable farms.

Vaccination is another weapon of many that are used daily in farms: biosecurity measures to prevent the entry of pathogens from other holdings, implementing hygiene standards and animal management to reduce the spread of diseases among animals the same holding, strict control of food, or creating a comfortable environment for the animals of the farm.

Vaccines usually directed against highly contagious viral processes, although there are some directed against parasites or bacteria, play an important role in the health of the holding role because they are the basis for maintaining a stable exploitation.

When a pathogenic virus for the animal species enters an establishment, implementation will depend on the degree of resistance that animals have against the virus, can trigger or not an outbreak in animals, which would destabilize the yield of the holding for a time.

Vaccines intended to raise the level of resistance of animals against pathogens frequently so that when the pathogen between, the infection does not progress.

Many vaccines are used: some aimed at reducing disease processes of respiratory type, others against pathogens that alter the intestinal mucosa and produce intestinal disorders, others seek to control pathogens that affect fertility or cause embryonic death, fetal malformations or abortions.

All these processes produce economic losses in production animals and often leave them sequels that make them unprofitable, and in extreme cases lead to death.

Vaccines therefore greatly help to reduce morbidity and mortality in farms and contribute to improving animal welfare.

Very often, viruses are the gateway to other opportunistic pathogens, usually bacteria, which under normal circumstances are not capable of causing damage but after a viral infection that weakens and reduces the defensive capacity of the animal, invade the body causing disease.

These bacterial diseases must always be treated with antibiotics and therefore, vaccination of farm also has a very positive effect on reducing the use of antibiotics in animals.

In light of the comments made, and being aware that the degree of implementation of vaccination programs in the Spanish productive farms is very high, we still think it should be strengthened further, as the best way to raise the overall strength of all the population thus minimizing the spread of pathogens.

Vaccines in Dogs

Vaccines in Dogs

To what age can I vaccinate my dog?

The mother of an animal crosses in pregnancy and lactation degree of immunity to their children, but this is lost over time, so a puppy is vulnerable to many diseases from 60 days old, for this reason some vaccination plans should start to apply before or after this age. For example, it is recommended to vaccinate a puppy against canine parvovirus from 45 days of age and the rabies vaccine can begin applying between 5-6 months of age.

What vaccinations for dogs exist in Chile?

In Chile there are vaccines for dogs that protect against one or more diseases at the same time, the best known are the sextuple and octuple vaccine (protecting against canine parvovirus, canine distemper, infectious canine hepatitis, leptospirosis, parainfluenza and coronavirus).

Rabies Rabies vaccine protects against that legislation is the obligation of the owner to keep your pet vaccinated against the deadly disease.

Vaccines in Dogs

What diseases can be prevented with vaccination in dogs?

Canine Parvovirus: highly contagious viral disease in dogs, the virus can survive in the environment for several months. The disease is very debilitating and can be severe or fatal in puppies. This disease causes fever, vomiting and severe bloody diarrhea.

Distemper and Canine Distemper: highly contagious among dogs, is transmitted through nasal secretions, eye of virus infected dogs, signs include fever, cough, diarrhea and vomiting, hardening of the skin on the nose and bearings Plantar; seizures, myoclonus and paralysis of the extremities may occur in the final stage of the disease.

The virus attacks the respiratory, digestive system and the nervous system, the latter can be permanently damaged even when the animal is recovered from the disease.

Infectious Canine Hepatitis: disease caused by canine adenovirus type I disease transmitted among dogs by contact with secretions from infected animals such as saliva, urine, feces. The signs are similar to the early stages of canine distemper but then there liver and kidney failure, eye damage and breathing problems, the course of the disease can be mild to fatal.

Leptospirosis is a zoonosis, that is, which can affect humans. It is a disease caused by bacteria; infected dogs develop fever in the beginning of the disease, muscle stiffness, weakness, dehydration, loss of appetite, diarrhea, respiratory distress, liver damage and kidney failure, resulting in death, or sometimes sick dogs need a long treatment period for full recovery.

Canine kennel cough or kennel cough: highly contagious among dogs, very often they live in areas where many dogs, affects the respiratory system producing a dry cough or hoarse breathing difficult, sometimes causes fever, weakness and loss of appetite.

Corona virus infection: the virus attacks the digestive system and can be fatal to puppies, signs develop rapidly and can include vomiting, diarrhea, dehydration, loss of appetite and weakness.

Rabies: is a fatal and incurable viral disease affecting the central nervous system (CNS) of all mammals including humans. It is contracted through saliva or bite any infected animal. The signs are variable, the animal may have changes in their unpredictable behavior, nervousness, anxiety, aggression, excessive salivation or inability to swallow water.

What are vaccines?

What are vaccines

What are vaccines

Vaccines are special products, very delicate, which stimulate the immune system to generate antibodies or defenses that protect your pet from certain diseases system. Vaccines have a temporary effect on the animal and should be repeated periodically throughout the life of the pet. The veterinarian is trained to handle preparation and implementation of these sensitive products on your pet.

The number of vaccinations or vaccination plan of an animal shall be recommended by the veterinarian, since he will determine the health status and the particular situation of the pet when to vaccinate, also consider the presence of the disease in certain geographical areas which can be avoided with proper vaccination schedule.

What recommendations do when vaccinated?

We recommend deworming your pet before undergoing their first vaccination.

Once a puppy is vaccinated by the veterinarian, the puppy may have decay, a slight feverishness and pain in the area Application of the vaccine. Notify your veterinarian if this state lasts longer than 24 hours or is accompanied by other signs such as diarrhea and vomiting.

Never bathe your pet before or immediately after receiving the vaccine. Ask your veterinarian when and how to bathe her.

Keep your pet out or travel away from home before their first vaccination and 3 days after vaccination.

Never vaccinate a sick animal, weakened or decayed.

How I can keep my pet always protected?

To be successful in preventing disease, you should always observe the schedule of vaccination and deworming recommended by the veterinarian Provide your pet a balanced and adequate diet for their age and animal species, Keep your pet good hygienic conditions and the environment that surrounds it, give it a suitable environment for their physical and mental development, ensure the welfare of your pet and watch for any signs of illness.

New immunization schedule 2015

New immunization schedule 2015

Vaccine Advisory Committee (BAC) of the Spanish Association of Pediatrics updated every year the schedule of recommended vaccines within the Spanish territory on the basis of the scientific evidence on effectiveness and safety obtained by investigations throughout the year.

We bring the new calendar 2015 and proceed to discuss the changes with respect to the previous year:

Changes in relation to the calendar last year:

HPV Change in dose vaccination against human papillomavirus: 2 instead of the recommended 3 doses used until now to see which dose efficiency is not reduced.

B meningococcal meningitis B vaccine passes first to be accepted into the immunization schedule, although time is only for hospital use.

Chickenpox The chickenpox vaccine he was recommended and funded before children 12-15 months and a second dose at 2-3 years of age.

But a change in the legislation eliminated these two vaccines (without possibility of buying in pharmacies throughout Spain) and delayed to age 14 for children who have not passed the disease by then.

Meningococcal C meningococcal C vaccine happens to have a vaccination schedule: one dose at 2 and 4 months or 4 months only, one at 12 months and a third at 12 years old.

Immunization Schedule: age of HPV vaccine administration

Immunization Schedule age of HPV vaccine administration

Spain does not have a single vaccination schedule, each community has its own, causing problems of information and discontent. The Peninsula has a 80% vaccination rate, but there is an inconvenience that lies on the percentage of each region. There are large differences between each other, in the Basque Country and Catalonia the vaccination rate is around 90% while in Andalusia the level drops dramatically to less than 50%.

According to the 2013 report of the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 290 million women are affected by human papillomavirus, known as HPV virus. Around 528,000 new cases occur and it is estimated that 75-80% of sexually active people may become infected at some point in his life, including men who may also be carriers and contracting this disease.

The Ministry of Health, has made ​​a structure in the administration of the HPV vaccine whereas today, the beginning of the first sexual intercourse is increasingly early, we decided to overtake the 12 years the administration of the vaccine virus Human papillomavirus (HPV) in women, and include men studied in the next immunization schedules, as well it is doing in countries like the US or Australia.

Dr. Esther Redondo, coordinator of preventive activities of the Spanish Society of Primary Care Physicians, mentioned that vaccination is an act of solidarity with the rest of society, and thanks to the injection of the HPV vaccine can prevent disease transmission sexual.

Rheumatoid arthritis and exercise

Rheumatoid arthritis and exercise

Until recently, the common belief about the best treatment for arthritis was rest. Today, experts advocate the controlled exercises to promote circulation and relieve inflammation.

“What do you have rheumatoid arthritis, but that’s not what has most people? … “. This is one of the misconceptions we have of this chronic disease and autoimmune inflammatory character, that every day affects more people. The another mistake is that physical exercise is counterproductive for these patients.

Most prevalent in women than in men, age of onset is usually middle age, between 40-50 years, but can also do it in childhood or adolescence.

With an unknown origin, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) causes inflammation in various joints of the body, usually bilaterally, preventing the patient a normal daily life, due to restrictions of mobility generated by these inflammations and especially the pain that they cause. Finally, these inflammatory processes that occur in outbreaks are disrupting the normal architecture of the patient’s joint deformities generating hindering movements even more.

In short, we are dealing with a disease that often goes completely unnoticed by all but the sufferer. You perform tasks as simple as opening a screw cap, turn the key to the front door or squeeze the hose to a gas station, it becomes mission impossible for many people daily.

The increase in cases in recent years and especially the efforts of those affected is beginning to bear the first fruits, as the health community gradually provides more tools to a group of patients for whom, until now, the best treatment was resignation and living with the pain.

These treatments, always coordinated by a physician, consist primarily of a medication to control these inflammatory processes and biological treatments performed in the laboratory, which are designed specifically for each patient … getting, as they verbalize “life-changing”.

But all this must be maintained by a multidisciplinary group, where nurses, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, dietitians and psychologists work closely together. Without ignoring them all, in this article we focus on the share of the physiotherapist and physical exercises we can do under their supervision.

Personal Trainers

Personal Trainers

What was once a luxury of celebrities and athletes is now at your finger tips? If you have little time or will you need to put on a form, you might need to hire one. We give you the keys to pick it.

What it was once a luxury or a whim of famous athletes and is now at your fingertips. If you have little time or will you need to put on a form, you might need to hire a personal trainer. We give you the keys to pick it.

The job of a personal trainer is none other than individually monitor into shape of a person. It is not just about planning an exercise routine, but also to control other aspects, such as motivation or diet, essential for the success of the work initiated by the coach to be successful for each client, who should value professionalism, plans individual and training before opting for hiring their services.

In this sense, a personal trainer should be the key piece for your customer achieve its objectives (always realistic) more quickly and effectively, whether these weight loss, increase muscle mass, maintain fitness, promote flexibility, etc. .

So far, the figure of the personal trainer was reserved for the more privileged classes, but it does not have to be a movie star or sports to have the support of these professionals. The average cost of a session may be around 30 euros, the same as, for example, a particular kind of English. Still, late fees depend on the dedication and exclusiveness needed.

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