MonthMarch 2014

Farm vaccines

Farm vaccines 1

With the rising cost of beef, chicken, pork, and milk, you may be frustrated but few stop to think about the expenses of vaccinating livestock that eventually finds its way into many kitchens through eggs, milk, cheese, or meats.

Pigs receive a number of vaccinations throughout their lives. From time of birth, vaccinations are given to prevent Leptospirosis (a viral disease that can be spread to humans through foods grown in soil where the virus is transferred by animal urine), Parvovirus (a viral infection that can kill piglets), Erysipelas (a bacterial skin infection), E Coli (a bacteria that is transferred by eating undercooked meat), and Atrophic Rhinitis (a disease that distorts bones). Rabies is often required in any animal that spends time outdoors.

Both dairy cows and cattle are vaccinated against a number of ailments and infections. Many states require all outdoor animals receive the vaccination for rabies. Beyond that requirement, any smart farmer ensures that his or her cows receive vaccinations for IBR (Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis), PI3 (Parainfluenza 3), BVD (Bovine Virus Diarrhea), and BRSV (Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus.)

Farm vaccines

Other vaccinations are given when the cow/bull is old enough. Those vaccines include: Leptospirosis, Trichomonas fetus and Vibriosis (sexually transmitted bovine diseases that can cause infertility in cows), Clostridium (a bacteria that is resistant to heat and causes botulism in food), Hemophilus Somnus (a bacterial infection that attacks the cow/bull’s central nervous system), and Anaplasmosis (also called “tick fever” and is known to cause respiratory distress). The diseases can be deadly to an entire herd, but in rare cases Clostridium can be deadly to humans.

Poultry can be difficult to vaccinate due to their size. Many experts recommend leaving your fowl unvaccinated if you only own a handful of birds. Many states are now requiring all poultry be vaccinated against Bird flu to prevent an outbreak. The vaccine is expensive due to the lack of available vaccine.

Large poultry farms are well advised to get their flocks vaccinated, however, against both bird flu and other diseases.

Vaccinations for poultry include: Marek’s Disease (a virus that causes tumors), Newcastle Disease (a virus that leads to bronchitis), Infectious Bronchitis (a virus that can kill large flocks of chickens), Fowl Pox (can lead to pinkeye and skin problems), Avian Encephalomyelitis (a virus infection that damages the nervous system), and Fowl Cholera (a flu-like disease that can kill large numbers of birds.)

Only Bird flu can be transferred to humans, but the other diseases can wipe out entire flocks in a matter of weeks. This could prove to be costly to both the poultry supplier and the purchaser.

Diphtheria, Tetanus & Pertussis vaccination

Diphtheria, Tetanus & Pertussis vaccination

Diphtheria/Tetanus/Pertussis vaccinations offer protection against three serious diseases in one shot. The three-in-one combination vaccine can help from having to give a child multiple painful injections.

Diphtheria is a deadly disease that causes a build up of bacteria in the throat. This can lead to obstructed airways and breathing difficulties.

Tetanus is an infection that can be received through a cut in the skin by contaminated dirt or rust. Tetanus causes extreme muscle inflammation and spasms. The muscles become so tight that they can affect breathing or heart function.

Pertussis, also known as whooping cough, is suddenly making a comeback in some areas of the United States. The bacterial infection causes a build up of mucus in the nose and throat area that can create breathing difficulties.

The vaccine is given in four doses. The first three are given when an infant is two, four, and six months. The next dose comes when the child is between the ages of fifteen and eighteen months. A booster shot is usually given when a child turns 12, but that depends on the form of the vaccination that has been used.

Diphtheria, Tetanus & Pertussis vaccination 1

Tetanus boosters are given every ten years once adulthood is reached. The booster is often given earlier if an adult seeks medical care for a deep cut or puncture wound as a preventative measure.

The vaccinations are 95% effective in preventing Diphtheria and Tetanus, while only 58% effective in preventing Pertussis. Evidence has shown that vaccinated children who then come down with Pertussis usually have a much milder case than those who have not received the vaccination.

In 1 out of 10,000 vaccinated children, severe pain at the injection site, vomiting, and a high fever of 105º or higher have occurred. In extremely rare cases (0.03%), brain swelling and comas have occurred. Commonly, the only side effects are mild pain and swelling at the injection site and a low-grade fever.

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