CategoryVaccine for Animal

Spaying and Neutering your pets

Spaying and Neutering your pets

L to female sterilization and castration of males is a method for removing jealousy of females and reproduction of animals, to somehow avoid overcrowding of animals that roam the streets of our cities and also solve some health problems of our pets.

Female sterilization involves removing part of your reproductive system through a surgical procedure under general anesthesia, complications are rare and complete recovery is around 10 days.

This surgery can be performed from 6 months old, sterilization at this age reduces the risk of getting breast cancer in adulthood. Also early sterilized cats become more docile and friendly.

If you do not want to sterilize your pet, you should know that there are other alternatives to avoid the heat in females as contraceptives but these are not recommended for dogs or cats in her first heat, they should also be applied at a certain time of the cycle females (anoestrus) not to cause diseases such as uterine infection or pyometra.

Castration of males is also done through a surgery under general anesthesia to remove part of your reproductive system is less complicated than female sterilization and full recovery is at 7 days, it is also recommended to castrate starting from 6 months old. A neutered dog decreases the incidence of prostate diseases.

Spaying and Neutering your pets

Besides cats neutered at an early age, they become more friendly and calm, reduces urine marking behavior in its territory, avoid departures or disappearances away leading to fights with other cats and the spread of disease.

Canine Reproduction

A female dog can reach sexual maturity between 6 and 14 months, depending on the breed, being earlier in small and later in larger breeds. Overall the dog may have a period of heat every 4-6 months.

The mating season begins with the proestrus phase that lasts between 6- 11 days with an average 9 days, the female begins here with vaginal bleeding and is attractive to males but not accept rides, comes immediately after the fertile period or where estrus female ovulates and accepts the male to be fertilized, this stage also lasts between 6-11 days with an average of 9 days.

Therefore, we can estimate the fertile period of the bitch occurs on the ninth or eleventh day from the start of vaginal bleeding and it is at this point that accept being mounted by the male for fertilization.

It is recommended to cross a female canine in their second or third heat, when it decides to cross a female, it is recommended that prior to breeding, she is wormed, vaccinated, with a good physical condition (neither fat nor thin), also it is crossed with a male equal to or smaller than it, to avoid complications in childbirth.

Mating or hard ride about 20 minutes. The number of puppies depends on the fertility of both dogs and the number of mounts. Gestation lasts bitch in about 60 + 3 days, if there is an obvious pregnancy is recommended to change to adult food puppy dog.

Canine reproduction

When comes the time of delivery you may notice the dog restless, cease to eat or take attitudes like making a nest in the yard or in your closet.

A physiological event is the body temperature drops more than normal, indicating that delivery has come imminently, sometimes you can see that the dog boot your mucus plug along with contractions, then every puppy is born in an individual bag color green, which is the placenta, the new mother cut the umbilical cord will bring the puppy of the placenta, cleanse, and can eat the placentas.

Help the mother when she is not able or do not know the puppy out of the placenta, itself feels trained carefully you can break the bag, remove the puppy, cut the umbilical cord and clean to breathe.

Overall a dog can give birth alone but we are in the presence of a difficult birth when the mother has made efforts to give birth more than two hours and have not gotten a puppy is born, or even when a puppy is born and spend more than 60 minutes no was born the rest of the litter, in these situations should call the veterinarian immediately, as the life of the dog and the puppies are in danger.

If labor was no problem is also recommended consideration by the veterinarian to evaluate the new mother, see if there are still puppies or remains of placentas inside and to examine the new puppies.

Once born the puppies they seek heat and its mother’s milk, the lactation period should not last less than 45 days, around this age begin weaning when the pups are able to eat solid food for puppies that is given to the mother.

Play Feline

The cat reaches sexual maturity between 5-10 months of age. She may have several jealousy at certain times of the year, with increased activity in August. We recommend a cat crossing from 14 months of age, or in his second heat, she should be in good physical condition (should not be fat or extremely thin) on shots and worming a day, to give a good immunity to the kittens and not transmit parasites.

In matching the cat needs the stimulation of the male during copulation to ovulate and be fertilized, a cat in heat can be mounted by several males at different times, the cat will accept mating throughout the period of zeal even if this brewing or amantando their kittens. Gestation in the cat takes about 60 days, if no apparent gestation is recommended to change the adult food to kittens cat and not let to mate again.

Cat with kittens

Overall a cat stop her cubs alone, when the time of delivery comes you may notice your cat restless, anxious or vocalizes more than usual, can also find a safe place to have their kittens.

A physiological event is the body temperature drops more than normal, indicating that delivery has come imminently, sometimes you can see that with the contractions boot the mucus plug. Each kitten born in a deed and individual bag is the placenta, the new mother will take it out and clean, cutting the umbilical cord and the placenta usually eats.

A difficult birth occurs when the mother has made efforts to give birth to more than two hours and have not gotten born any kitten, or where between the birth of a kitten and a pass longer than 60 minutes, in these situations should call the veterinarian immediately, as the life of the cat and kittens They are in danger.

If labor was no problem it is also recommended that the veterinarian to examine and verify the new generation that there are no kittens within the cat. Once born kittens seek warmth and milk from his mother, the period of breastfeeding should not last less than six weeks, around this age begin weaning, when the kittens are able to eat solid food for kittens given to the mother.

What age can I vaccines for cats?

What age can I vaccines for cats

From what age can I vaccinate my cat ‘s mother an animal crosses in pregnancy and lactation degree of immunity to their children, but this is lost over time, between 5-7 weeks of life, begins to decline maternally derived immunity in kittens. Therefore around 9 weeks old, the kittens already be vaccinated with the triple vaccine against feline and feline leukemia.

The rabies vaccine can begin applying between 5-6 months of age. The vaccination plan in cats may vary at the discretion of the attending veterinarian and the types of vaccines used.

What vaccines for cats exist in Chile?

In Chile feline vaccines help protect against some viral diseases fatal to cats. The triple vaccine against rabies and feline vaccines are routine; and the vaccine against feline leukemia and feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) are optional.

What age can I vaccines for cats

1. Feline triple vaccine protects against three highly contagious disease among cats are feline rhinotracheitis, feline panleukopenia and feline calcivirus.

2. Vaccine against feline leukemia is highly recommended.

3. Vaccine against feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) of intranasal application.

4- The vaccine that protects against rabies is legally binding, the owner of a cat must keep up the rabies vaccination.

What diseases can be prevented with vaccination in cats?

Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis : is a disease caused by a virus that affects, easily transmitted from cat to cat upper respiratory system. Overall affected cats have fever, loss of appetite, sneezing, runny eyes, nose and cough. Unprotected or weak kittens can be the most affected by this disease.

Feline Calicivirus: this highly contagious among cats virus produces a disease that affects the respiratory system, accompanied by fever, mouth sores, loss of appetite, sneezing, eye discharge and pneumonia.

FPV: viral disease of cats that causes diarrhea, severe vomiting, dehydration and fever. Easily controlled with proper vaccination.

Feline Leukemia : Infection with the feline leukemia virus can trigger many diseases and serious health problems in your cat, as this disease affects the system inmune.Despues initial exposure to the virus, the cat may not show signs of disease months or years and infect other cats meantime.

There is the option to do a blood test to determine the status of the feline leukemia virus in your cat. If your cat is not infected with the virus, vaccination against this fatal disease is highly recommended.

Rabies: is a fatal and incurable viral disease affecting the central nervous system (CNS) of all mammals including humans. It contiaga through saliva or any infected animal bite.

The signs are variable, you can make changes in their unpredictable behavior, nervousness, anxiety, aggression, excessive salivation or inability to swallow water.

Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP): este virus especially affects young people and adults cats, is a global disease that causes high mortality, especially where live many cats.

The disease initially manifests with chronic fever and anorexia, then it can be expressed in two ways wet form where clinical signs are mainly accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity, coughing and difficulty breathing.

The dry form is characterized by the formation of nodules on internal organs causing variable symptoms such as anemia, nervous signs, eye damage and then death. Vaccination is recommended for over 16 weeks of age who have not been exposed to the virus and will coexist with other serologically positive cats kittens.

The importance of vaccination in animal health

The importance of vaccination in animal health

Vaccination has been one of the best tools for the control of viral diseases in humans. Developed countries through the rigorous application of vaccination programs have succeeded in minimizing the incidence or even eradicate highly prevalent diseases in the population just a few years ago, such as measles, rubella, mumps …

Strategies to control viral processes in animals are similar to those used in humans, although there is tremendously important differential fact marks the success or otherwise of these strategies: while in humans the state handles both free information campaigns as the costs of vaccination, livestock and even pets, state intervention is much lower, limited to those diseases that primarily for reasons of public health, require eradication plans and in which case government intervention it could finance the vaccine cost and always carries a strict monitoring of the effectiveness of the program.

Vaccination against most animal diseases is therefore voluntary, being the owner, advised by the veterinary services, who makes the decision to vaccinate or not and takes the appropriate vaccine cost.

The fact that vaccination is free no risk to human health, since we do not speak of diseases transmissible to humans, although they may have a great interest in animal health.

Disease control through the application of vaccination programs in animals is well established, sometimes for purely humanitarian reasons such as animals (dogs, cats, horses, rabbits …) and others, for both humanitarian reasons and production , such as livestock (cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, poultry …). The main features of the objective of vaccination in these species described below.

The importance of vaccination in animal health

Vaccination in pets

The pet concept has evolved greatly over the last three decades in our country. In many occasions, the idea on pet has in other European countries and North America, the pet has become part, as one of the family. While many alien species have been taken in recent years as pets, the main health efforts continue to focus primarily on the most common species as a pet: dog and cat.

The vaccine protocols that are established in dogs and cats must be understood from three perspectives: the protection of owners and other humans who live with these animals, controlling levels of illness within the population of that species, and safeguarding health and quality of life of that individual.

The most crucial of the vaccination program for a dog or cat when is the postnatal period, in which both puppies and kittens are exposed more directly to the action of pathogenic microorganisms and their body is still very fragile to develop a spontaneous immunity front of them. That’s why protocols are much more intense during this first stage of life.

There are two distinct categories of diseases against which they are vaccinated dogs and cats:

Disease “core” or essential : those against which there is a recommendation to vaccinate strictly all animals (and in some cases, such as rabies, vaccination is mandatory in many regions in Spain). This is either (potentially transmissible to humans) or zoonotic disease highly contagious and with high mortality in both dogs and cats diseases.

Disease “non core” or nonessential: those against which the recommendation is to vaccinate if the animal is part of a group of specific risk. These diseases can not be highly lethal, but upsets in pets, and are highly contagious for example when the animals are kept, albeit temporarily, in communities (farms, shelters, kennels, dog shows, etc. ). If these conditions are met, it is appropriate immunoprophylaxis.

To ensure adequate protection of pets against these diseases throughout their lives, to be repeated regularly vaccinations, with an interval and a pattern that will depend on the prospect of the vaccine used and the recommendations of the veterinary surgeon who is in charge animal.

From the legal point of view, for some diseases may be required proper completion of the immunization by a veterinary surgeon throughout the lifetime of the animal.

Finally we must remember that disease and legislation on tenure of pets can be highly variable depending on the country concerned.

This must be taken into account when traveling with our dogs and cats abroad. Should consult the embassy and informed of the requirements well in advance of both vaccination and deworming (or other health) that require pets in the country of entry.

The animals must travel with documentation consistent with these requirements, most of the time, must be reviewed and certified by a veterinary surgeon. These preparatory steps can take several days or even months of preparation before the trip to proceed.

If not properly conducted, can the animal refused entry in the country of destination or for performing a relevant period of quarantine and observation of the dog or cat.

Vaccination of animals income (livestock)

The health of animals is the main key to getting healthy and quality food, main goal of the veterinary profession. That is why the disease control and the use of all the tools available for it is the daily work of the veterinarian on farms, thereby also contributing to profitable farms.

Vaccination is another weapon of many that are used daily in farms: biosecurity measures to prevent the entry of pathogens from other holdings, implementing hygiene standards and animal management to reduce the spread of diseases among animals the same holding, strict control of food, or creating a comfortable environment for the animals of the farm.

Vaccines usually directed against highly contagious viral processes, although there are some directed against parasites or bacteria, play an important role in the health of the holding role because they are the basis for maintaining a stable exploitation.

When a pathogenic virus for the animal species enters an establishment, implementation will depend on the degree of resistance that animals have against the virus, can trigger or not an outbreak in animals, which would destabilize the yield of the holding for a time.

Vaccines intended to raise the level of resistance of animals against pathogens frequently so that when the pathogen between, the infection does not progress.

Many vaccines are used: some aimed at reducing disease processes of respiratory type, others against pathogens that alter the intestinal mucosa and produce intestinal disorders, others seek to control pathogens that affect fertility or cause embryonic death, fetal malformations or abortions.

All these processes produce economic losses in production animals and often leave them sequels that make them unprofitable, and in extreme cases lead to death.

Vaccines therefore greatly help to reduce morbidity and mortality in farms and contribute to improving animal welfare.

Very often, viruses are the gateway to other opportunistic pathogens, usually bacteria, which under normal circumstances are not capable of causing damage but after a viral infection that weakens and reduces the defensive capacity of the animal, invade the body causing disease.

These bacterial diseases must always be treated with antibiotics and therefore, vaccination of farm also has a very positive effect on reducing the use of antibiotics in animals.

In light of the comments made, and being aware that the degree of implementation of vaccination programs in the Spanish productive farms is very high, we still think it should be strengthened further, as the best way to raise the overall strength of all the population thus minimizing the spread of pathogens.

Vaccines in Dogs

Vaccines in Dogs

To what age can I vaccinate my dog?

The mother of an animal crosses in pregnancy and lactation degree of immunity to their children, but this is lost over time, so a puppy is vulnerable to many diseases from 60 days old, for this reason some vaccination plans should start to apply before or after this age. For example, it is recommended to vaccinate a puppy against canine parvovirus from 45 days of age and the rabies vaccine can begin applying between 5-6 months of age.

What vaccinations for dogs exist in Chile?

In Chile there are vaccines for dogs that protect against one or more diseases at the same time, the best known are the sextuple and octuple vaccine (protecting against canine parvovirus, canine distemper, infectious canine hepatitis, leptospirosis, parainfluenza and coronavirus).

Rabies Rabies vaccine protects against that legislation is the obligation of the owner to keep your pet vaccinated against the deadly disease.

Vaccines in Dogs

What diseases can be prevented with vaccination in dogs?

Canine Parvovirus: highly contagious viral disease in dogs, the virus can survive in the environment for several months. The disease is very debilitating and can be severe or fatal in puppies. This disease causes fever, vomiting and severe bloody diarrhea.

Distemper and Canine Distemper: highly contagious among dogs, is transmitted through nasal secretions, eye of virus infected dogs, signs include fever, cough, diarrhea and vomiting, hardening of the skin on the nose and bearings Plantar; seizures, myoclonus and paralysis of the extremities may occur in the final stage of the disease.

The virus attacks the respiratory, digestive system and the nervous system, the latter can be permanently damaged even when the animal is recovered from the disease.

Infectious Canine Hepatitis: disease caused by canine adenovirus type I disease transmitted among dogs by contact with secretions from infected animals such as saliva, urine, feces. The signs are similar to the early stages of canine distemper but then there liver and kidney failure, eye damage and breathing problems, the course of the disease can be mild to fatal.

Leptospirosis is a zoonosis, that is, which can affect humans. It is a disease caused by bacteria; infected dogs develop fever in the beginning of the disease, muscle stiffness, weakness, dehydration, loss of appetite, diarrhea, respiratory distress, liver damage and kidney failure, resulting in death, or sometimes sick dogs need a long treatment period for full recovery.

Canine kennel cough or kennel cough: highly contagious among dogs, very often they live in areas where many dogs, affects the respiratory system producing a dry cough or hoarse breathing difficult, sometimes causes fever, weakness and loss of appetite.

Corona virus infection: the virus attacks the digestive system and can be fatal to puppies, signs develop rapidly and can include vomiting, diarrhea, dehydration, loss of appetite and weakness.

Rabies: is a fatal and incurable viral disease affecting the central nervous system (CNS) of all mammals including humans. It is contracted through saliva or bite any infected animal. The signs are variable, the animal may have changes in their unpredictable behavior, nervousness, anxiety, aggression, excessive salivation or inability to swallow water.

Farm vaccines

Farm vaccines 1

With the rising cost of beef, chicken, pork, and milk, you may be frustrated but few stop to think about the expenses of vaccinating livestock that eventually finds its way into many kitchens through eggs, milk, cheese, or meats.

Pigs receive a number of vaccinations throughout their lives. From time of birth, vaccinations are given to prevent Leptospirosis (a viral disease that can be spread to humans through foods grown in soil where the virus is transferred by animal urine), Parvovirus (a viral infection that can kill piglets), Erysipelas (a bacterial skin infection), E Coli (a bacteria that is transferred by eating undercooked meat), and Atrophic Rhinitis (a disease that distorts bones). Rabies is often required in any animal that spends time outdoors.

Both dairy cows and cattle are vaccinated against a number of ailments and infections. Many states require all outdoor animals receive the vaccination for rabies. Beyond that requirement, any smart farmer ensures that his or her cows receive vaccinations for IBR (Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis), PI3 (Parainfluenza 3), BVD (Bovine Virus Diarrhea), and BRSV (Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus.)

Farm vaccines

Other vaccinations are given when the cow/bull is old enough. Those vaccines include: Leptospirosis, Trichomonas fetus and Vibriosis (sexually transmitted bovine diseases that can cause infertility in cows), Clostridium (a bacteria that is resistant to heat and causes botulism in food), Hemophilus Somnus (a bacterial infection that attacks the cow/bull’s central nervous system), and Anaplasmosis (also called “tick fever” and is known to cause respiratory distress). The diseases can be deadly to an entire herd, but in rare cases Clostridium can be deadly to humans.

Poultry can be difficult to vaccinate due to their size. Many experts recommend leaving your fowl unvaccinated if you only own a handful of birds. Many states are now requiring all poultry be vaccinated against Bird flu to prevent an outbreak. The vaccine is expensive due to the lack of available vaccine.

Large poultry farms are well advised to get their flocks vaccinated, however, against both bird flu and other diseases.

Vaccinations for poultry include: Marek’s Disease (a virus that causes tumors), Newcastle Disease (a virus that leads to bronchitis), Infectious Bronchitis (a virus that can kill large flocks of chickens), Fowl Pox (can lead to pinkeye and skin problems), Avian Encephalomyelitis (a virus infection that damages the nervous system), and Fowl Cholera (a flu-like disease that can kill large numbers of birds.)

Only Bird flu can be transferred to humans, but the other diseases can wipe out entire flocks in a matter of weeks. This could prove to be costly to both the poultry supplier and the purchaser.

Dog vaccinations

Dog vaccinations

With rising costs of gas for example, many families have to cut back on what they can and cannot afford. Can you afford costly vet bills and still pay for your heating? Sadly, this is a question that many have to consider. Not every canine vaccination is truly necessary, so you do have a little room to help you reduce your vet bill.

Law requires the rabies vaccine. This is not a vaccine you can skip. The vaccine is given early and then a booster must be given every two years. Rabies is a viral disease that destroys the central nervous system.

It spreads through saliva and blood, usually from the bite of a wild animal. Signs that your dog has rabies include aggression, unusual appetite, erratic behavior, difficulty walking (staggering), excessive foam/drool from the mouth, and more.

Distemper is a virus that affects the respiratory system. The vaccine is combined with Canine Parvovirus, Coronavirus, Canine Parainfluenza, and Adenovirus. Each virus causes vomiting, diarrhea, and dehydration.

dog vaccination with a big blue Syringe

dog vaccination with a big blue Syringe


They can develop into pneumonia and eventually death. The vaccines are given every four weeks until a puppy is about 16 weeks old. After that, some veterinarians recommend boosters that truly are not necessary. If your vet suggests boosters for these diseases, you can skip it.

The Lyme disease vaccine is recommended in many northern states where deer ticks are common. Signs of this disease include lethargy, fever, lack of appetite, and muscle/joint pain. The vaccine is given in two doses three weeks apart and then a yearly booster is given. If there is no Lyme disease in your area, skip this vaccine.

Bordatella (kennel cough) is a highly contagious respiratory disease. Symptoms include a dry cough that doesn’t seem to go away with a drink of water. If you take your dog to a groomer, a training class, kennel, or shows, you will be required to show proof of this vaccination. The vaccine is given twice yearly. If your dog stays at home, you really do not need this vaccine.

Cat vaccinations

Cat vaccinations

If you have ever taken your cat to the veterinarian, you will know just how expensive routine care can be! Vaccinations really add up, and most vets recommend a wide variety of vaccines and medications. My last trip for one cat ran well over $200 in vet fees. This leads to an important question: Which vaccines are truly necessary?

Rabies is a viral disease that destroys the central nervous system. Symptoms include disorientation, dramatic appetite changes, aggression, seizures, and erratic behavior. Law in the United States requires rabies vaccinations. The disease is spread through saliva and blood.

Typically, Rabies is commonly spread by a bite from a wild animal (raccoon, fox and bat). A cat’s first rabies vaccination is good for one year. Following that, there is a booster that is given every three years. Odds are that your indoor cat will never become exposed to rabies, but vets have to administer the vaccine regardless.

Feline Distemper (Panleukopenia) is a deadly disease in which a virus invades the blood stream causing diarrhea, vomiting, seizures, and dehydration. Many vets insist on administering this vaccine. There are risks that can outweigh the necessity. If your cat is strictly an indoor cat, there truly is no need to have your cat vaccinated.

There is concern that some of the vaccines on the market can lead to dangerous conditions. Though the odds are slim, if the cat is strictly an indoor cat, there is no real risk that Feline Distemper will ever be an issue.

Rhinotracheitis is a strain of the herpes virus that can cause eye damage in your cat. Watery eyes, cloudy eyes, and redness can be a sign of both Rhinotracheitis and other eye issues, so it can be hard to tell if your cat has allergies or something more. This is a vaccine that is necessary and boosters should be given every year.

Cat vaccinations 1

Calcivirus is a respiratory disease that can become dangerous quickly. Symptoms are persistent gum disease and upper respiratory disease. The vaccination for this virus is urged to all cat owners.

The vaccination for Feline Leukemia is one vaccine that is debatable. There is no chance that an indoor cat will be exposed to the deadly disease. Typically, Feline Leukemia has no significant signs at first.

Weight loss, fever, pale gums, poor coat condition, and diarrhea are common as the disease progresses. If your cat ever goes outside, you should have that cat vaccinated. Otherwise, the risks outweigh the benefits.

There is a link that the Feline Leukemia vaccination can cause fibrosarcomas (malignant tumors) and anaphylactic shock. Due to the high risk of fibrosarcomas, many vets are starting to steer clients away from the Feline Leukemia vaccination on an indoor cat.

Feline Infectious Peritonitis is a viral disease that shuts down many of the cat’s important organs including the heart, lungs, and brain. The key signs to FIP are sneezing, watery eyes, and a runny nose. Veterinarians recommend this vaccine if your cat will be exposed to feral cats or large groups of other cats. Otherwise, you can skip it.

Finally, Chlamydiosis is a respiratory disease that spreads easily from cat to cat. Red, puffy eyes, runny nose, and sneezing are the common signs to Chlamydiosis. If your cat is exposed to neighborhood cats, you should have this vaccination. Otherwise, you can bypass the vaccine and keep your cat inside.

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